We develop a general mathematical framework for variational problems where the unknown function takes values in the space of probability measures on some metric space. We study weak and strong topologies and define a total variation seminorm for functions taking values in a Banach space. The seminorm penalizes jumps and is rotationally invariant under certain conditions. We prove existence of a minimizer for a class of variational problems based on this formulation of total variation, and provide an example where uniqueness fails to hold. Employing the Kan\-torovich-Rubinstein transport norm from the theory of optimal transport, we propose a variational approach for the restoration of orientation distribution function (ODF)-valued images, as commonly used in Diffusion MRI. We demonstrate that the approach is numerically feasible on several data sets.